How to Revise Your Dissertation Using Reverse Outline Strategy

August 24th, 2020 by

There are various techniques that can be adopted to improve the quality of a document. Out of the the many, one that is less popular but quite effective is reverse outlining.

Reverse outline is a technique that is created and used after the writing task has been accomplished. It is being used by seasoned writers, globally for the purpose of assessing the quality of their work.

Usually, the objective behind reverse outline is to identify if any paragraph is overlapped with multiple points and which amongst those points are relevant and whether any points are misplaced or redundant then they can be eliminated.

To begin the process of reverse outline, you take away all of the used supporting writing material and are just left with the main ideas of the papers which are at times represented by the topic sentences of your paper.

The reverse outline can be created in many ways and though, any kind  of outline can be considered appropriate the most commonly followed method is bullet points or the Roman numeral approach. It assists in creating a point wise structure of the content and gives you the platform to look at the main points of the document you have created.

Reverse outlining technique is not just helpful in reorganising the paragraphs but also helps in structuring of the entire work. When your focus is on the paragraph level, you need to figure out whether you need to combine, delete, move or insert any content from the paragraph to make it more focused and concentrated. On a larger picture, it helps to decide whether the desired argument is being created by the document or no.

Your effort of reverse outlining would be a success if by the end you have identified the direction and focus of the paper. You would be able to locate the gaps and the missing elements that could be breaking the flow. Further on, you would identify the redundant content that could be loading the content with unnecessary information or diluting the main focus of the topic. Next in line, after you achieve these important stages, you will be able to create more meaningful and shorter paragraphs that focus on one idea or similar ideas that make it simpler for the reader to understand what the writer intends to put across. To add to the aesthetic appeal of the document, you would be able to add symmetry to the length of the paragraphs so that neither are some paragraphs left too short or too long.

Importance of dissertation editing and how it can change a doctoral student’s life

July 24th, 2020 by

Dissertation papers have always been a fear for doctorate students. You may have all the knowledge and have scored great marks in assessments, but when it comes to writing a dissertation paper, it is like nemesis and you start fearing that it will go all wrong in the end. This is one paper that you would not want to make any kind of mistake. That is why it is better to get an outside view of how your paper has been done. This outside view is basically the editing service that is required for your dissertation paper. There are numerous things that need to be taken into consideration while writing a thesis paper such as headings, subheadings, chapters, graphs and so many other things. Moreover, the format of the dissertation paper has to be followed accurately. It may become difficult to follow all these things and it would be best if you get the paper checked by a professional before finally submitting it.
Get recognized for the best paper
Many students who opted for dissertation editing got departmental awards for their paper. The technique in which the papers are checked and corrected is unique. Each and every word is checked thoroughly and even the grammar and punctuation is corrected. Many students have also said that they have been called by committee members because they wanted to let the student know that their paper was the best from the lot.
Guaranteed approval
Your doctorate degree depends on the approval or disapproval of the dissertation paper. When you are opting for dissertation editing or writing service, you can be rest assured that your paper will be approved. The surprising part about this is, many students have also been rewarded for excellent paper submissions and those papers have been shown to future students as well. Such is the quality of service that you will get from the websites providing dissertation writing services.

When time is money
This is one of the biggest benefits of dissertation editing. You can save months by handing over the dissertation work to the professionals. Even if you have very little time in hand, you can get in touch with the editing experts and they would finish your work in time. You will find various websites that provide such services and there are hundreds of professional writers and editors who are ready to take your work and submit them way before the given deadline.

PhD Dissertation Vs Book

July 1st, 2020 by

You’ve heard the following advice before, no doubt, but it is worth repeating! Once the Dissertation is finished you’ll feel compelled to publish it right away .Resist the urge.The initial revision of your manuscript should be attempted only after you have put it aside and not looked at it for several months, and after you have reread it with the eyes of a reader who has never heard you or your committee .I sometimes still receive manuscripts with the dissertation cover page still on top ,and that tells me that the author had just successfully defended the dissertation and sent it off to me without giving a thought to the eventual book’s true audience. Most editors at university presses would not even send the manuscript out for the review at this stage.Even if the topic is compelling and the editor is interested,chances are that the reviewers will point out that a considerable amount of revision is necessary before manuscript is really a book , and the reviews will not be favourable enough for the editor to proceed.Of Course there are exceptions-occasionally a dissertation is written by someone with prior journalistic experience ,or by someone who has written other books or by some who is an extraordinarily mature writer. But usually a dissertation is written by someone who has spent too many years as an apprentice and is anxious to get a job.As authors of earlier chapters have noted , the audience for a dissertation usually consists of four or five people, the student’s doctoral committee .The author has written it to prove that he or she has done the appropriate research ,performed convincing analysis, come up with the original conclusions, and put it all together in a coherent narrative, dutifully addressing the various committee members ‘particular interests.

A book, by contrast, should be written for a wider audience of people interested in your topic.This audience will include scholars and graduates who are working in your specific area of research, or generally in the field addressed in your book, and even-if you are lucky , and the book is well written and on a fairly broad topic or one of the current interest among the media-some educates general readers .The audience will also include the reviewers of your book ,both before and after it is published.These readers do not need an exhaustive literature review. ,hundreds of footnotes to justify everything you say, or lengthy or tedious refutations of work by scholars who have become before you. Your audience will not appreciate your showing well you can use jargon-in most cases they will appreciate your avoidance of specialized language.Often,however, revising your dissertation is not just a matter of removing the literature review, trimming the notes, and toning the jargon. A dissertation must in many cases be reconceptualized and expanded in scope before it can become a successful or even publishable book.

But first, why not consider whether you really want to put all that work into dissertation you’ve already spent years writing and revising and have finally defended ? Are you sick of the topic? If so, your style will suffer .Are you worried that the book will become dated or longer fashionable in two or three years’ time? In either case I would recommend carving up the dissertation to produce one or two or three excellent scholarly articles, and then putting aside and coming up with a new book topic, one that may grow naturally out of the research you did for the dissertation but that is free of constraints of writing for your committee .The book you produce will no doubt be a more mature and more readable work than the revised dissertation would have been.

Protection of Others’ work used in your dissertation – A guide for PhD Candidates

June 8th, 2020 by

You need not obtain permission for those who work in the public domain, that is, works with no copyright protection or those with expired copyrights. Academic honesty, however, mandates that you acknowledge all sources in your dissertation, even those in the public domain. If you use copyrighted material in your dissertation, you must secure the permission from the owner to include it unless it falls under the doctrine of fair use, which allows limited reproduction of copyrighted works for educational and research purposes .This doctrine is rather complex and can have many interpretations. Miller and Taylor (1987) reported that most university style manuals permit “excerpts of up to 150 words, provided they do not constitute a major portion of the original works”.

If you believe that what you are using falls under fair use, you need not obtain permission, but you must cite the sources in footnotes or in endnotes and in references. Using copyrighted material in your dissertation without obtaining permission can be copyright infringement and is called piracy if you profit from it in any way. Both are serious infractions. Be sure to always obtain written permission from the author or permission from the author or publisher if you plan to use copyrighted material in your dissertation, such as tests, questionnaire, poems, figures, or other artworks, or large excerpts of books. Madsen (1992) explained the process for obtaining permission: 

Send the holder of the copyright – usually the publisher of the book or article – a simple form listing the work , the pages and lines you wish to copy and quote, and the title and the publisher of the work in which the material will be published . A form also should include a place for the copyright holder’s signature. 

This procedure probably will be necessary if you later decide to publish an article or write a book based on your dissertation . Should you wish to pursue more in depth information about the copyright law, refer to William S.strong’s (1998) The copyright book: A practical guide.

Best Dissertation Editing Services For Research Scholars

March 24th, 2020 by

Are you a research scholar pursuing a Ph.D. or thinking to take Dissertation Editing Services? 

Are you concerned about how good your dissertation or thesis will be? 

Are you worried about the deadlines that are associated with your university or college?
Do you think writing a dissertation or thesis is a manageable task?

Do you think the editing and proofreading part is essential and should be given enough time?

Do you think you have many responsibilities simultaneously when you are pursuing a Ph.D. or Masters?
Is dissertation editing services for Ph.D. Students important and necessary?

What are the consequences of not approaching for help?
Is thesis editing services for Master’s Students important and necessary?What are the consequences of not approaching for help?

We have an answer for all the questions that come in your mind as a student, we will first try and understand as to why editing and proofreading services are so crucial for your dissertation or thesis. 

Consequences of Ignoring the Editing and Proofreading part

If a research scholar ignores the significant part of editing and proofreading, there are high chances that the dissertation or thesis that they are submitting gets rejected as the reviewers will come to know quickly if the document was properly edited and proofread or not. 

What matters in pursuing higher studies is the confidence that students have on themselves and in cases where the paper gets rejected, it becomes difficult for the students to come back on track with the same energy level and confidence. The point here is why to give a chance to the reviewer to reject your paper when you can totally be sure about your paper and give it for submission too without missing any deadline.

Talking about deadlines, it is important that you maintain all the guidelines that are mentioned as per the rules and regulations of your university. These guidelines must be followed and the deadlines they give can’t be missed. We understand that when deadlines are on your head you might miss the important stage of editing and proofreading your paper. This is not going to help you at all because even if you submit that paper, chances are high that it might get rejected because of editing or proofreading errors. 

Every research scholar wants the document they submit to be so good that future researchers use it as a reference for writing their dissertation or thesis. Every scholar wants their paper to be published and cited a number of times. This is only possible if the scholars do the editing and proofreading part on their own or they take the help of editing services for dissertation and thesis.

Importance of Editing and Proofreading

As we understand how bad can the consequences be of ignoring the editing and proofreading part, now we will take a look at some points which prove the fact that editing and proofreading are important for your dissertation and thesis.

  • Editing and proofreading assure the reliability of your paper
  • Editing and proofreading assure the acceptability of your paper
  • Editing and proofreading will increase confidence in you while you submit your dissertation or thesis
  • Editing and proofreading will enhance the chances of your paper being published in one of the recognized journals
  • Editing and proofreading creates an impression and sets you apart from the rest of the research scholars
  • Editing and proofreading will make sure that your paper gets accepted in one go

The journey you are in is one of the most stressful journeys one can be in and hence taking help from services that can prove to be a boon for you becomes necessary. From where will you get that service is a question but we have an answer for that. 

We are here to make sure that you do well in the dissertation or thesis that you are going to submit, taking into consideration the format, language, style of writing, structure, grammar, punctuation, and everything related to editing and proofreading are taken care of by us. 

Language is one of the important aspects when it comes to our editing and proofreading service. The language should be readable and understandable for everyone who is going to read your dissertation or thesis. We take care of every aspect word to word and we make your content seamless.

APA Formatting Tips for Dissertation

February 7th, 2020 by

Are you a student of psychology? Or writing a paper in the field of psychology? Then APA Format is the format you need to follow. You need to list down the References used and you might need to go for an APA Dissertation Editing too, to deliver a world class research paper. There are other tips also to complete a dissertation in APA format correctly, which we will cover later in this article.

This style is quite different from the others and the guidelines of this type of papers are also different from others. This guideline may not match with the guidelines in which you would have produced earlier dissertations. 

This style of formatting may take a while to learn, so the best you can do for yourself right now is choose a English Editing Company.

APA FORMATTING: American Psychological Association  has prescribed a style in which all the citations in the field of psychological, social sciences and education should be cited and is the official style of American Psychological Association. The basic guidelines of APA were first published in an article titled, Psychological Bulletin in the year 1929 which later got expanded in the American Psychological Association Publication Manual.

The Major Sections of APA Format and Basic Tips to have a Perfect Dissertation:

APA Style has 4 important sections: 

  1. Title Page.
  2. Abstract.
  3. Main Body.
  4. References.

Let us understand the basics related to APA Format Dissertation prescribed in the 6th Edition of the APA Manual.

  • Taking 1-inch margins from the four sides of a paper, make use of 8.5×11 inch paper.
  • Starting with the APA Title page, consequently number the pages in the right corner of the header.
  • Make use of fonts like Courier or Times New Roman, keeping the font size to 12 (for a clean and simple line, sans serif can also be used).
  • Keeping the right margin ragged, justify the text on to the left.
  • Double spacing between two paragraphs is recommended.
  • After all punctuation marks, use a space.
  • Make use of precise and short sentences.
  • Make use of active voice, avoid using passive voice.
  • Do not make use of biased language.
  • Do not make use of flowery language.

Once the basic rules are clear, we can now go on to the basic tips of APA Dissertation Editing: 

  1. Check out for the headings used: As most of the research styles use different fonts and sizes, it is confusing when it comes to APA format. Thus, taking a look at your dissertation is a wise decision, checkout for the font size to be Courier or Times New Roman and the size to be at least 12. 
  1. Checkout for any biased language: Making use of biased language in your dissertation is prohibited in APA Format. Thus look out for any biased language or sentence and evade it.
  1. Checkout for use of Capital letters: Many researchers or students conducting research in APA format for the first time may not be familiar where and when to use a capital letter. Make use of the following tips to ensure proper use of capital letters in your dissertation:
  • If Major words in your title, subtitles and headings are more than 4, make use of capital letters.
  • The names of courses and departments should be mentioned in capital letters.
  • Hypotheses and theories should not be in capital letters.
  1. Checkout for the numbers used: The numbering in your dissertation should be as per the guidelines of APA Format. The guidelines for using numbers in APA Format are:
  • Common fractions and common expressions should be spelled.
  • If a sentence starts with a number, it should not be numeric. It needs to be spelled.
  • If the numbers are below ten, spell out ( “seven categories” and not “ 7 categories). If numbers are above ten, numbers can be used. ( 14 categories).
  • Do not make use of the percentage sign (%) in texts, using the percentage sign in tables is accepted.
  1. Checkout for Tables, Figures and Charts: Any table or chart used in your dissertation must adhere to the guidelines of APA Format. Guidelines are :
  • Tables should be numbered consequently. And use of alphabets should be avoided such as “Table 1a”, “Table 1b”.
  • The table should be labelled with the contents in the table and numbering should be consequent.
  • For easy reading of the reader, name your rows and columns.
  • When the numbers are less than one make use of zero (“0.37” and not “.37”).

APA Dissertation Editing is not a simple task, it is always beneficial to have an expert like Edit n Publish by your side. Your mentor may not be able to always provide their assistance as they may have other responsibilities too, but we assure you that we will. 

We would love to help you achieve your goal. Our help will not only be restricted to the editing of your dissertation but we will also provide you with other facilities too. Professionals who are experts in english check for your grammar, language and whether all the guidelines of APA Manual are maintained or not.

With English Editing Company, like Edit N Publish you will receive:

  • Correction of grammatical mistakes, spelling mistakes and typing errors, an entire edited document will be provided.
  • Suggestions related with the flow, structure and readability of the dissertation.
  • Your paper will be edited and provided with clarity, as in what changes have been made.
  • On time delivery.

With everything assured, the most important thing is that you can totally rely on us, as your dissertation will be kept confidential and not be shared with anyone for any reason. 
Have a query? Write to us at: Contact us 

A Sneak Peek to Top 6 Types of Peer Review Processes

November 29th, 2019 by
Peer review is a collaborative process where the academic authors obtain constructive feedback to proceed with their piece of writing. Peer reviewing, regarded as a quality measure tool for manuscript, evaluates manuscript for its suitability for specific publication.Despite its flaws and complexity, peer review is large relied upon in the field of research. According to a report, about 90% of respondents stated that the quality of their manuscript improved considerably through peer review process. 

Benefits of peer review process

  • The main advantage of peer review process is that it establishes the validity of the research and prevent fake works from being published within an area of study.
  • It provides valuable feedback and offers scope for further improvement of a section or entire manuscript.
  • Allows journals to choose relevant, precise and important findings for publication. 
  • Upholds the quality of the work and the scientific knowledgebase
Today, peer review is the best technique to measure the quality of the manuscript. When the manuscript is submitted to the journals, the reviewers scrutinise the piece of writing for originality and scientific reliability.
  • While performing peer review process, the reviewers ensure that the manuscript adds value to the existing knowledge base. The reviewers check if it adds new knowledge or expand the existing knowledge? Does the manuscript provide scope for scientists or policy makers? Is the manuscript submitted to the appropriate journal?
  • The reviewers also check if the research question is defined appropriately, the chosen study design is apt and has potential to obtain answers to the research question, and participants are adequately described. They also scrutinise if the results clearly mentioned, does the conclusion and interpretation focus on the data? Are the references relevant? and does the abstract and summary reflect the manuscript?
Peer review, forming the base of niche manuscript, are classified into 6 types. 

Single blind review 

This type of peer review is the most common process in the scientific journals. Here, the identity of the reviewer is not disclosed to the author, but the reviewer has information pertaining to the author. This enables reviewers to provide genuine feedback to the author. Also, by knowing who the author is, the reviewer can use the previous knowledge of the author. However, there are a few drawbacks of single blind review process such as gender or nationality discrimmination. Also, the knowledge of reviewer may overshadow the work leading to insufficient scrutiny.

Double blind review 

In double blind review, neither the reviewer has the author information nor the author has details regarding the reviewer. This will lead to fair and unbiased review results. Also, both author and reviewer can avoid criticism from each other. Some of the cons of this type of review is that the reviewer may not end up providing informed judgement. Also, the anonymity of the author isn’t guaranteed as the reviewer might discover the identity by looking at the writing style or topic of research. 

Open review

Here, the identity of the reviewer and author is known to all participants. This type of peer review is not used by many journals. In open peer review, the journals publish the reviews along with the final piece of writing to enable the readers to view the comments. The transparency of this peer review type enhances accountability and improves the quality of the work. However, some reviewers might disagree to provide feedback due to concern about being identified. They may also criticize the work of the senior researchers.  

Transferable review

This is relatively a new form of peer review. Here, the journals (subject-related) transfer the reviewed manuscripts between them. The author submits a manuscript to a journal, which is reviewed by the concerned authorities and then is transferred to the suitable journal (on author’s permission). This type of review provides the author with an alternate option for publication. The drawbacks of this type of review are: the reviewers at receiving journal might wouldn’t want to accept more submissions or might decide that the manuscript is not suitable to their journal. 

Collaborative review

As the name suggests, group of reviewers will work together on a manuscript. This is done through two approaches. In the first approaches two or more reviewers scrutinise the manuscript and offer unified feedback. Whereas, in the second approach, one or more reviewer discusses the scope of improvement with the author. This type of review is more constructive. However, the benefit of individual evaluation is obtained in this type of review. 

Post publication review 

In this type of peer review, the option for revision of manuscript continues even after the publication. It takes the form of comments or discussion page alongside the published manuscript. This approach give an opportunity to improve the writing even after publishing and reflects the evolution of the knowledge. However, if the topic is controversial, the manuscript might attract large number of comments which cannot be moderated many a time.Peer review is a lengthy process and involves many stages. To know more about the steps involved in this process, visit

A Brief Guide to top 5 Clustering Methods in Data Mining

October 30th, 2019 by
Research involves working with vast amounts of data (structured & unstructured). Although structured data can be assessed without grouping them, unstructured data must be segregated into logical groups prior to analyzing them. This is exactly where the clustering methods is used. Clustering methods, also known as the data segmentation method, is the process of grouping specific data depending on their similarities and characteristics. In data mining, this approach segregates the data (using a special join algorithm) that are best suited for data analysis. The clustering process allows an element to be a part of a cluster. This is known as soft clustering. However, in hard clustering, the element is not allowed to be a part of the cluster. To effectively perform the clustering, several factors should be taken into account. 
  • Scalability – Highly scalable clustering algorithms are required to manage large databases. 
  • High & low dimensionality – The clustering algorithm must be able to handle both low and high dimensional space. 
  • Interpretability – The clustering outcomes must be comprehensible, interpretable and usable. 
  • Determination of clusters with attribute shape – The algorithm must be able to discover clusters of arbitrary shape and must not be bounded only to the distance measures. 
  • Ability to handle various types of attributes – Clustering algorithm must be flexible enough to be applied to any kind of data including categorical, numerical and binary data. 
Based on the cluster models, different types of clustering methods can be applied to the set of data. However, the choice of the type of clustering solely depends on the features of the data set. 

Centroid-based Clustering method 

In this type of clustering, every cluster is referenced by the vector of values. Here, each element is the part of the cluster whose difference value is minimum when compared to other clusters. This clustering method is close to classification subjects and can be used to solve optimization issues. However, the drawback of the centroid-based method is that it requires the clusters to be pre-defined. 

Density-based Clustering method 

This type of clustering algorithm is based on the high density of data participants. That is, the clusters are formed according to the high density of the participants of a set of data in a given location. This is achieved by aggregating some distance notions to standard density levels to group the participants in clusters. The major drawback of the density-based approach is it does not perform well in determining the limit areas of the group. 

Grid-based Clustering method 

As the name suggests, the elements form a grid. This type of clustering method utilizes a multiresolution grid data structure. Grid-based clustering technique takes space-driven method by partitioning the embedding spaces into cells that are independent of input objects distribution. It differs from the conventional type of clustering as it deals with the value space and not data points. The advantage of the grid-based method is it can be applied to any attribute type and offers flexibility pertaining to the level of granularity. 

Partitioning-based Clustering method 

This type of clustering method segregates the data into several subsets. For instance, if a database of ‘n’ elements is given. The partition method then creates ‘k’ partition data. Here, each partition is represented as a cluster and ask ≤ n. This implies that the data is classified into ‘k’ groups, which then satisfies requirements such as (A)inclusion of at least one element in a group and (B) affiliation of each element to only one group. Some of the points to consider while using this clustering method are: (a)  for a given number of partitions, the partitioning approach will develop initial partitioning. (b) it uses iterative relocation strategy to enhance the partitioning by moving elements from one group to another.

Hierarchical-based Clustering method   

This type of clustering develops a hierarchical decomposition of given data sets. Based on the hierarchical decomposition, this type of clustering is divided into agglomerative and divisive clustering approach. An agglomerative method, also known as a bottom-up approach, begins with each element forming a separate group. The elements or groups keep merging thereafter. The divisive approach, called a top-down method, begins with all elements in the same group. The group/cluster is then split into smaller clusters in the continuous iteration. Clustering algorithms, an essential factor of data mining, finds its application in several areas, including pattern recognition, market research, image processing, categorize genes, and many more. 

Unsupervised Learning: Get an Insight into Top 3 Learning Techniques in Deep Learning

September 28th, 2019 by
Deep Learning is gaining popularity among Artificial Intelligence (AI) and data scientist community. With growing time, it has become of the love of data lovers across the globe. However, of late, researchers have begun to question if deep learning is the future of Artificial Intelligence. Today, although supervised learning (a deep learning technique) has an upper hand in the industry, it is unsupervised learning that enables the researcher to find the unknown trends and design in the data. The main goal of unsupervised learning is to allow the model and to discover insights & patterns on its own. Unsupervised learning recognises commonalities in the underlying data and reacts on the basis of the presence of commonalities in the dataset.  For example, let’s consider a baby and its pet cat. In a few weeks, the baby identifies all the features two eyes, ears nose and play with the cat. A few days later a family friend visit and gets his cat and the baby was able to recognize that this pet is similar to his pet due to similar features but knew that cat was different from his cat. This is a clear example that it learns and discover the structure by itself.  With that said, unsupervised learning are of 3 types. Here’s a detailed look at each of them. 
  • Clustering
Clustering involves searching for the pattern and trends of categorized data. These algorithms process the data and find clusters or groups of same features. Groups of data are formed by using a clustering algorithm so as to classify the data in specific groups. All the data points have the same properties, and features in the same group, whereas different groups have unique properties or characteristics.The popular types of clustering we use are:
  • K-Means Clustering – clustering your data points within a k-number of mutually exclusive clusters. A lot of complexity encompasses how to select the right number (K).
  • Hierarchical Clustering – a technique used to cluster the data points into the origin and minor clusters. You might split your consumers between fresher and more experienced ones, and then divide all of these groups into individual clusters.
  • Probabilistic Clustering – a technique that is used to cluster all the data points using a probabilistic scale.
 Clustering techniques are an easy yet powerful technique as they require intensive effort to give us a very relevant insight from our data. In that capacity, it’s been utilized in numerous applications for a considerable length of time including, for hereditary and species gathering, therapeutic imaging, statistical surveying, for understanding the multiple collections of organizations, clients dependent on individual traits, etc.
  • Autoencoders
In Machine Learning (ML), there includes certain conditions where feature representations or image that are just too huge to handle. Autoenodes is a technique in which we use neural networks for the same.For instance, consider you are using face recognition application and would like to save all the templates of a person’s face in your data warehouse for future reference. To keep the colour image of the person of 168×168,  we would have to keep 168 * 168 * 3 float values for each face! Here the storage space required will be huge. This is when autoencoders come into the picture. With an autoencoder, we can encode features which takes less space, while representing the same data.However to work this out, it is a must to train a neural network to predict its input. While doing so, note that the middle layer of the autoencoder will have fewer features than input and output. 
  • Expectations-Maximization algorithms
Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms have a set of iterative approaches meant to determine the parameters of various statistical models to explicitly model data. For example, consider a Gaussian distributed data and you require to find the best parameters for a Gaussian to model it. An Expectation-Maximization algorithm enables you to automatically determine the Gaussian parameters like mean and variation in every directionIn an EM algorithm, we shift within the Expectations(E) step and a Maximization (M) step. The E step uses the current parameters to develop a statistical model which can be applied to your data.Although it is quite challenging to implement unsupervised learning techniques, doing so can do wonders. Some of the benefits of unsupervised learning techniques are: 
  • Unsupervised learning algorithm helps to find all kinds of trends and unknown pattern in the underlying data. 
  • The algorithms help to discover all kinds of features that could be useful for categorization.
  • The input data can be analyzed and labelled in real-time in presence of learners.
  • It is always easy to get unstructured and unlabeled data than the labelled as it needs manual intervention.
Though unsupervised learning has several advantages, it includes a few drawbacks such as lack of accountability in AI, plenty of data lakes, etc. Thus even with the recent success of this process, it isn’t recommended by industry experts. However, we can expect it to be omnipresent in the near future.

10 tips on How to Pen Down a Manuscript for Psychology Journal Publication

August 30th, 2019 by
Preparing a manuscript for a major psychology journal publication can be a daunting task for everyone, from first-time authors to even experienced researchers. However, all authors need is just a bit of help in preparing their manuscript in the best possible manner as required by prominent psychology journals. The process of submitting manuscripts varies a little from one journal to another. However, there are some standard practices to follow when submitting your work to a publication.

Listed below are ten tips that will help you prepare the best manuscript possible

Nail The Abstract Of Your Manuscript

The author usually waits for the last minute to prepare this section, but this is usually the first section that a typical reader sees. The abstract can be difficult to write because the author has to summarize an entire paper in no more than a few hundred words. A good abstract is accurate, autonomous, non-evaluative, consistent and legible. In addition, it is designed to address two important functions. Firstly, once the article is published, it may be the only part of the study that is read by most researchers. Many scan the summary to decide whether the paper is worth reading or not. Secondly, with the development of electronic search systems, magazine readers have begun to increasingly rely on abstract services to identify relevant documents. The best way to nail your abstract is to begin working on it early on, in every project.

Capture Readers’ Attention With A Captivating Introduction

A solid introduction captivates readers and provides a context for the study. In presenting the research topic, every author must clearly explain why the problem merits further research, placing the study in the context of current knowledge and previous theoretical and empirical work on the subject, in the form of a short, engaging introduction!

Pay Close Attention To The Length Of Your Manuscript

Journal editors generally work with a limited number of assigned research papers. This number is determined at the beginning of the year of publication. Space is valuable, and a manuscript should not contain more than 30 to 35 typed double-spaced pages, inclusive of relevant tables, figures, and references. Editors and reviewers regularly review the length of various sections, especially the introduction and discussion sections. As an author, it is vital that you pay heed to the balance in the length of individual sections within your manuscript. Use words carefully and make every word count.

Use Relevant Stats & Figures To Better Elucidate Your Point

Readers often tend to acquire a clearer understanding of a research paper with the help of the tables and figures used within. The heart of the study is often found in these compact sources. All authors should, therefore, pay close attention to stats. The best tables and figures are those that are structured according to the style of the APA, are clear and isolated with legends, and also complement rather than duplicate the information offered in the text itself.

Keep Things Simple

A good manuscript is always easy to understand. Sometimes the main reason for psychology journal reviewers and editors rejecting an article is that they find it hard to understand. The importance of clear and concise communication in scholarly writings cannot be emphasized enough. Writing is hard work. However, it is possible to follow some basic guidelines to facilitate good writing. These include –

Choose The Most Appropriate Style For Your Manuscript

The style of scholarly manuscripts may refer to various aspects of the writing technique.  Authors who are preparing to submit a manuscript will want to take a close look at the APA editorial style, for rules on capitalization, italics, abbreviations, the structure of headers, etc. It is also crucial to avoid language bias, which is especially important in the case of sensitivity to concerns such as participants’ mental illness and cultural background. A solid manuscript will demonstrate the author’s mastery of writing in the academic genre of a research article.a) the methodical expression of ideas,b) the fluidity of expression,c) precision/clarity of words, andd) correct grammar.

Think About The Finer Details Of Your Manuscript

In addition to the style requirements discussed above, a well-crafted manuscript also conforms to the minor technical aspects that most psychology journal publications require authors to adhere to. Authors should carefully re-read their manuscripts for typographical and spelling errors before submitting them for publication. Reviewers and writers generally go through multiple manuscripts and are quite strict, even with the most minute mistakes. Even minor mistakes can cloud an otherwise phenomenal research paper.

Use References Wisely

With regards to using references, it is important for authors to be as economical as possible, because space is limited, and also use the best, most recent, and most relevant sources available. Reviewers/editors tend to challenge manuscripts that do not cite relevant studies and rely too often on unpublished works. The authors should also make sure that references are consistent with the APA editorial style.

Think About All Pertaining Ethical Guidelines

When planning and preparing a manuscript, authors should refer to the “Psychologist’s Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct” and all pertaining ethical guidelines of the institution where the research was conducted. The APA Code of Ethics requires that authors ensure the approval of the concerned institutional review committees and obtain the informed consent of all participants. Compliance with these requirements should be noted in the ‘Method’ section.

Perform Multiple Revisions Before Submitting Your Manuscript

Even the most experienced authors submit their completed manuscripts only after considerable editing and re-editing. Until you have gained some experience in technical writing, you must plan on performing multiple revisions to your manuscript.All successfully submitted psychology research manuscripts usually have a number of elements in common. These ten tips are guaranteed to help authors in preparing concise, high-quality manuscripts fit to be published in any top psychology journal publication in the globe.